Vitamins and Trace Minerals
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DRI / RDA for Calcium / Magnesium
and Vitamins A, D, K

2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for Adults, Children, Pregnancy and Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
Calcium Magnesium
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years males
19 + years males

11-18 years females
19-50 years females
50 + years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
200mg AI
260mg AI
700mg - 1200mg

1000mg - 1300mg
1000mg - 1200mg

1000mg - 1300mg
1000mg
1000mg - 1200mg

1000mg - 1300mg
1000mg - 1300mg

1000mg - 3000mg
250mg - 10,000mg
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years males
19 + years males

11-18 years females
19-50 years females
50 + years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
30mg AI
75mg AI
80mg - 200mg

200mg - 410mg
400mg - 420mg

200mg - 360mg
310mg - 320mg
320mg

360mg - 400mg
310mg - 360mg

65mg - 360mg
50mg - 2500mg

Best time to take Calcium: Late day / bedtime (or last meal before bedtime if working night shift).
If amounts in excess of 500mg are taken, the balance should be split equally between mid and late-day meals.
For best absorption, Calcium pills should be taken with food, and doses should not exceed 500 mg at a time.
Best time to take Magnesium: Late day / bedtime. With food (preferably), or without food.
Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Calcium Synergists: Copper, potassium, boron, strontium, sodium, titanium, CoQ10, Vitamin B5, Vit D, Vit K, sat. fats, magnesium*. Magnesium Synergists: Chromium, zinc, boron, CoQ10, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B6, insoluble fiber, calcium*, Vitamin D*.
Calcium Antagonists / Inhibitors: *Phosphorus, iron, manganese, germanium, chloride, bismuth, chromium, zinc, sulfur, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, niacin / niacinamide, PABA, insoluble fiber, phytic acid, lecithin, protein, oxalic acid, mineral oil, alcohol, caffeine, w3 (e.g. flaxseed oil), magnesium*. Magnesium Antagonists / Inhibitors: Sodium, potassium, iron, selenium, copper, lithium, silicon / silica, manganese, Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, niacin / niacinamide, PABA, Vitamin K, folate, choline, uric acid, alcohol, w6 (e.g. primrose, pumpkin seed oil), calcium*, Vitamin D*
   * Dose-dependent - They are co-factors at normal levels, and antagonists at higher levels.
High/Low Levels / Deficiency / Toxicity - Symptoms and Risk Factors:
Low Calcium: Insomnia, anxiety, nervousness, depression, fatigue, muscle / joint pains, muscle spasms / cramps, high stomach acid, osteoporosis, seizures, birth defects, miscarriage, high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, cardiovascular disease, hemorrhagic stroke, aneurysms, PMS, dysmenorrhea (painful periods), rickets, higher risk for some cancers. Low Magnesium: Irregular heart beat, cardiovascular disease, anxiety, insomnia, nervousness, fatigue, muscle / joint pains, osteoporosis, seizures, high stomach acid, asthma, high blood pressure, PMS, depression, sweating, muscle spasms / cramps, dysmenorrhea, angina, constipation, migraine / headaches.
High Calcium: Arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease and stroke, hypertension, low stomach acid, depression, fatigue, glaucoma, higher risk for several cancers, muscle / joint pains, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, calcification, dry skin, constipation. High Magnesium: Cardiovascular disease, arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, coma, muscle spasms, joint / spinal degeneration, bone loss, low stomach acid, low body temperature, low blood pressure, higher risk for several cancers, intestinal / genitourinary bleeding, dry skin, fatigue, depression, dehydration, diarrhea.



Calcium Sources: Dairy products, tofu, almonds, brazil nuts, salmon, sardines, broccoli, collard greens, kale, cauliflower, soybeans, seaweed / kelp, hard water, molasses. Magnesium Sources: Almonds, brazil nuts, soybeans, wheat germ, seeds, wheat bran, millet, legumes, dark green vegetables, fruit, seafood, hard water.

2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for Adults, Children, Pregnancy and Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
Vitamin A (Retinol)
Vitamin A2 (3,4-dehydro-retinol)
Vitamin A3 (3-hydroxy-retinol)
Vitamin D (Calciferol)
Vitamin D2 from plants (Ergocalciferol)
Vitamin D3 from animals (Cholecalciferol)
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
4-8 years

9-13 years males
14 + years males

9-13 years females
14 + years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
2,000 IU or 400 mcg
2,500 IU or 500 mcg
1,500 IU or 300 mcg
2,000 IU or 400 mcg

3,000 IU or 600 mcg
4,500 IU or 900 mcg

3,000 IU or 600 mcg
3,500 IU or 700 mcg

3,750 IU or 750 mcg
6,250 IU or 1250 mcg

3,000 IU - 15,000 IU
5,000 IU - 100,000 IU
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
4-8 years

9-13 years males
14 + years males

9-13 years females
14 + years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
400 IU or 10 mcg
400 IU or 10 mcg
600 IU or 15 mcg
600 IU or 15 mcg

600 IU or 15 mcg
600-800 IU or 15-20 mcg

600 IU or 15 mcg
600-800 IU or 15-20 mcg

600 IU or 15 mcg
600 IU or 15 mcg

1,000 IU - 4,000 IU
5,000 IU - 100,000 IU
Therapeutic Range for Beta carotene: 10,000 IU - 100,000 IU (ideally from mixed carotenoids).
Daily minimum intake of Vitamin D3 recommended by many researchers for adults andpregnant females living in the Northern Hemisphere is 2,000 - 4,000 IU (50 -100 mcg) / day.

Best time to take Vitamin A: Morning to afternoon; preferably with fatty food. Best time to take Vitamin D: Morning to afternoon; preferably with fatty food.
Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Vitamin A Synergists: Iron, manganese, Vitamin C, fats, conjugated linoleic acid, zinc*, Vitamin E*, Vitamin D*, alcohol*. Vitamin D Synergists: Magnesium, boron, selenium*, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, lycopene, UV rays, Vitamin A*.
Vitamin A Antagonists / Inhibitors: Zinc, Vitamin E, mineral oil, iron*, Vitamin D*, alcohol. Vitamin D Antagonists / Inhibitors: Calcium, strontium, cadmium, Vitamin K*, Vitamin A*, alcohol, mineral oil, oral steroids.
   * Dose-dependent - They are co-factors at normal levels, and antagonists at higher levels.
High/Low Levels / Deficiency / Toxicity - Symptoms and Risk Factors:
Low Vitamin A: Night blindness, eye disorders / blindness, weak dental enamel, poor bone growth, dry / rough skin, low resistance to infections, excessive mucus, air-born allergies, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, acne, higher risk for some cancers. Low Vitamin D: Rickets, osteomalacia, osteopenia, osteoporosis, bone pain, weak muscles, muscle spasms / cramps, cardiovascular disease, hypocalcemia (low serum calcium), psoriasis, higher overall mortality. Higher risk for some types of infections, cancers, or multiple sclerosis.
High Vitamin A: Birth defects (> 8,000 IU / day) osteoporosis, hairloss, bone pain, elevated blood sugar, liver damage, headaches, dizziness, double vision, bleeding gums, seizures, confusion, dry / peeling skin, hydrocephaly, dry cough, asthma, liver damage (> 25,000 IU / day).
Beta carotene: Carotenemia or Carotenodermia (orange skin color).
High Vitamin D: Calcification of soft tissue (arteriosclerosis), bonepain, osteoporosis, high blood pressure, weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, seizures, retarded growth (physical and mental), skin erruptions, kidney damage, headaches, constipation or diarrhea, atrial fibrillation, allergies, inflammation of mucus membranes, tetany of muscles. May worsen symptoms of autoimmune diseases, conflicting research of higher risk for several cancers.
A higher intake of preformed Vitamin A (retinol) may counter the protective effect of Vitamin D against the development of several cancers (colon, pancreatic, breast, prostate, skin, lymph, gastric, among others), and various other medical conditions. However, a high dietary / supplemental intake of Vitamin D (not from UV ray exposure) may equally inhibit the action of Vitamin A as a cancer preventive agent, as a chemotherapeutic adjunct in the treatment of some malignant tumors, [89][87][88] or increase the risk of mucus-related conditions and reduced viral immunity.


Vitamin A Sources: Fish liver oils, liver, eggs, dairy products.
Beta carotene Sources(Provitamin A): Carrots, broccoli, apricots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, spinach, squash, peppers, chlorella, watermelon.
Vitamin D Sources:
D3: Fish, fish oils, eggs, liver, fortified dairy products.
D2:
Irradiated foods. Some mushrooms produce large amounts of Vit D(> 6000 IU per 100 g) when exposed to UV rays for a few minutes after harvest.

2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for Adults, Children, Pregnancy and Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
Vitamin K as:

Vitamin K1 from plants sources(Phylloquinone, Phytonadione)

Vitamin K2 as:
MK4 from meat, eggs, dairy(Menatetrenone)
MK7 from fermented food or intestinal bacteria(Menaquinone)
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
4-8 years

9-13 years males
14-18 years males
19+ years males

9-13 years females
14-18 years females
19+ years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
10 mcg	 2.0 mcg AI
20 mcg	 2.5 mcg AI
30 mcg	 30 mcg AI
50 mcg	 50 mcg AI

60 mcg	 60 mcg AI
100 mcg	 75 mcg AI
140 mcg 120 mcg AI

60 mcg	 60 mcg AI
90 mcg	 75 mcg AI
120 mcg	 90 mcg AI

120 mcg	 90 mcg AI
120 mcg	 90 mcg AI

N/A
100 mcg - 45,000 mcg +

Best time to take Vitamin K: Morning to afternoon; preferably with fatty food. Best time to take :
Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Vitamin K Synergists: Calcium, copper, Vitamin B5, flavonoids, Vitamin D*. [Vitamin K protects against Vitamin D overdose]. Synergists:
Vitamin K Antagonists / Inhibitors: Vitamin A, Vitamin E, mineral oil, oxalates, alcohol, Coenzyme Q10, blood thinners / anticoagulants (coumadin), Antibiotics - by killing intestinal bacteria. Antagonists / Inhibitors:
   * Dose-dependent - They are co-factors at normal levels, and antagonists at higher levels.
High/Low Levels / Deficiency / Toxicity - Symptoms and Risk Factors:
Low Vitamin K: Bleeding, abnormal / prolonged blood clotting time, bruising, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, stroke, calcification, behavioral problems, failure to grow and develop normally in infants. Low :
High Vitamin K: Liver impairment / damage, hemolytic anemia, stomach upset, skin rash, brain damage in infants. High :



Vitamin K Sources: Green tea, kale, collards, spinach, cauliflower, cabbage, alfalfa, soybeans, tomatoes, oats, liver, egg yolk, meat, fish liver oils, blackstrap molasses. Vitamin K is also made by intestinal bacteria. Sources:


The information is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for self-treatment
General recommendations for nutritional supplementation: To avoid stomach problems and improve tolerance, supplements should be taken earlier, or in the middle of a larger meal. When taken on an empty stomach or after a meal, there is a greater risk of some tablets causing irritation, or eventually erosion of the esophageal sphincter, resulting in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). It is also advisable not to lie down right after taking pills. When taking a large daily amount of a single nutrient, it is better to split it up into smaller doses to not interfere with the absorption of other nutrients in food, or nutrients supplemented at lower amounts.