Research on
Cellular
Nutrition &
Trace Mineral
Analysis
Vitamins and Trace Minerals

DRI / RDA for B-Vitamins

2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for Adults, Children, Pregnancy and Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
(Thiamine Pyrophosphate)
(Synthetic derivatives: Benfotiamine, Allithiamine, Fursultiamine, Prosultiamine, Sulbutiamine)
Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
(Riboflavin 5'-Phosphate)
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
3-8 years

9-13 years males
14+ years males

9-13 years females
14-18 years females
19+ years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
0.2mg AI
0.3mg AI
0.5mg
0.6mg

0.9mg
1.2mg

0.9mg
1.0mg
1.1mg

1.4mg
1.4mg

N/A
50mg - 1,000 mg +
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
3-8 years

9-13 years males
14+ years males

9-13 years females
14-18 years females
19+ years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
0.3mg AI
0.4mg AI
0.5mg
0.6mg

0.9mg
1.3mg

0.9mg
1.0mg
1.1mg

1.4mg
1.6mg

N/A
50mg - 500mg +

Best time to take Vitamin B1: Morning - afternoon; preferably with food. Best time to take Vitamin B2: Afternoon - evening; preferably with food.
Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Vitamin B1 Synergists: Vitamin B2 Synergists:
Vitamin B1 Antagonists / Inhibitors: Vitamin B2 Antagonists / Inhibitors:
   * Dose-dependent - They are co-factors at normal levels, and antagonists at higher levels.
High/Low Levels / Deficiency / Toxicity - Symptoms and Risk Factors:
Low Vitamin B1: Beriberi, abnormal blood sugar, depression, fatigue, low adrenals, nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal disorders. Low Vitamin B2: Light sensitivity, cracks / inflammation of lips, tongue, corners of mouth, dizziness, insomnia.
High Vitamin B1: Heart palpitation, insomnia, agitation, high blood pressure, skin eruptions, hypersensitivity. High Vitamin B2: Nausea, vomiting, fatigue, anemia, low bloodpressure, [yellow urine].



Vitamin B1 Sources: Vitamin B2 Sources:
2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for Adults, Children, Pregnancy and Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
Vitamin B3/4 - Niacin / Niacinamide Vitamin B5 - Pantethine / Pantothenic Acid
(also called Calcium Pantothenate)
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
3-8 years

9-13 years males
14+ years males

9-13 years females
14+ years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
2mg AI
4mg AI
6mg
8mg

12mg
16mg

12mg
14mg

18mg
17mg

10mg - 35mg
100mg - 2,000mg +
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
3-8 years

9-13 years males
14+ years males

9-13 years females
14+ years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
1.7mg AI
1.8mg AI
2mg AI
3mg AI

4mg AI
5mg AI

4mg AI
5mg AI

6mg AI
7mg AI

N/A
250mg - 20,000mg +

Best time to take Vitamin B3: Any time during the day; preferably with food. Best time to take Vitamin B5: Afternoon - evening; preferably with food.
Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Vitamin B3 Synergists: Vitamin B5 Synergists:
Vitamin B3 Antagonists / Inhibitors: Vitamin B5 Antagonists / Inhibitors:
   * Dose-dependent - They are co-factors at normal levels, and antagonists at higher levels.
High/Low Levels / Deficiency / Toxicity - Symptoms and Risk Factors:
Low Vitamin B3: Pellagra (dementia, death), nausea, vomiting, fatigue, dermatitis, loss of appetite, swollen red tongue, greater risk for some non-melanoma skin cancers. Low Vitamin B5: Insomnia, joint pains, gouty arthritis, edema, kidney stones, burning feet.
High Vitamin B3: Flushing (Vit B3), nausea, vomiting, headaches, high blood sugar, high uric acid, jaundice, sweating, skin rash, raised stomach acid, insomnia, joint pains, calcium loss, PMS, increased choline requirements. High Vitamin B5: Edema, severe fatigue, joint pains, reduced protein metabolism, reduced phosphorus, raised VLDL triglycerides, calcification, dehydration, gastrointestinal symptoms, depression.



Vitamin B3 Sources: Vitamin B5 Sources:
2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for Adults, Children, Pregnancy and Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine
(Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate / P5P)
Vitamin B7 - Biotin
(N-Carboxybiotinyl Lysine / Biotinyl-5'AMP)
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
3-8 years

9-13 years males
14-18 years males
19-50 years males
51+ years males

9 -13 years females
14-18 years females
19-50 years females
51+ years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
0.1mg AI
0.4mg AI
0.5mg
0.6mg

1.0mg
1.3mg
1.3mg
1.7mg

1.0mg
1.2mg
1.3mg
1.5mg

1.9mg
2.0mg

30mg - 100mg
100mg - 2,000mg +
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
3-8 years

9-13 years males
14-18 years males
19-50 years males
51+ years males

9 -13 years females
14-18 years females
19-50 years females
51+ years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
5 mcg AI
6 mcg AI
8 mcg AI
12 mcg AI

20 mcg AI
25 mcg AI
30 mcg AI
30 mcg AI

20 mcg AI
25 mcg AI
30 mcg AI
30 mcg AI

30 mcg AI
35 mcg AI

N/A
50 mcg - 15,000 mcg +
• When supplementing more than 50mg of Vitamin B6 / Pyridoxine per day, the tablets should contain a small percentage of the Vitamin as Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate (P5P).

Best time to take Vitamin B3: Morning - early afternoon to avoid vivid dreams; preferably with food. Best time to take Vitamin B7: Anytime during the day; preferably with food.
Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Vitamin B3 Synergists: Vitamin B7 Synergists:
Vitamin B3 Antagonists / Inhibitors: Vitamin B7 Antagonists / Inhibitors:
   * Dose-dependent - They are co-factors at normal levels, and antagonists at higher levels.
High/Low Levels / Deficiency / Toxicity - Symptoms and Risk Factors:
Low Vitamin B3: Numbness (pins and needles) in hands and/or feet, depression, mental disorders, seborrheic dermatitis, high-estrogenic PMS, dizziness, insomnia, irritability, kidney stones, abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG), anemia, convulsions, edema (water retention), hypothyroid, migraine-headaches, glossitis, lymphopenia. Low Vitamin B7: Skin disorders, hair loss, brittle nails, anemia, seborrheic dermatitis in infants, depression, fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, muscular pains increased total cholesterol levels, hypoglycemia, glossitis.
High Vitamin B3: Numbness in hands and/or feet (from high intake of pyridoxine, not pyridoxal-5-phosphate), depression, suicidal tendencies, severe fatigue, low blood sugar, mood swings, migraine-headaches, heart palpitations, hyperthyroid, hypothyroid (long-term supplementation), spinal / nerve degeneration (all forms of Vitamin B6), muscle spasms / cramps, osteoporosis, arthritis, higher blood pressure (short-term supplementation), lower blood pressure (long-term supplementation), abnormally high phosphorus-sodium ratio (low pH), abnormally high magnesium-calcium ratio, manganese and/or calcium deficiency, restlessness, insomnia, increased dream activity, low estrogenic-depressive PMS, decreased estrogen and prolactin. High Vitamin B7: Reduced / slowed insulin release, increased Vitamin C requirements, increased Vitamin B 6requirements, skin eruptions, increased blood sugar.



Vitamin B3 Sources: Vitamin B7 Sources:
2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for Adults, Children, Pregnancy and Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
Vitamin B9 - Folate / Folic Acid
(L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate / L-5-MTHF)
Vitamin B10 - PABA
(Para-Aminobenzoic Acid)
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
3-8 years

9-13 years males
14+ years males

9-13 years females
14+ years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
65 mcg AI
80 mcg AI
150 mcg
200 mcg

300 mcg
400 mcg

300 mcg
400 mcg

600 mcg - 5mg (high risk)
500 mcg

400 mcg - 1,000 mcg
400 mcg - 20,000 mcg +
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
3-8 years

9-13 years males
14+ years males

9-13 years females
14+ years females



-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):





1mg - 5mg
5mg - 40mg

1mg - 5mg
5mg - 40mg




N/A
150mg - 900mg +
Folic acid is the synthetic form, which is about twice as potent as Folate, which is the natural form.
PABA is no longer used in sunscreens, or available as a nutritional supplement in some countries.

Best time to take Folic Acid: Morning - afternoon; with food. Best time to take PABA: Morning - evening; with food.
Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Folic Acid Synergists: PABA Synergists:
Folic Acid Antagonists / Inhibitors: PABA Antagonists / Inhibitors:
   * Dose-dependent - They are co-factors at normal levels, and antagonists at higher levels.
High/Low Levels / Deficiency / Toxicity - Symptoms and Risk Factors:
Low Folic Acid: Hemolytic and megaloblastic anemia, low energy, abnormal fetal development (neural tube defect), higher homocysteine levels / vascular degeneration, mental disorders, confusion, forgetfulness, insomnia, irritability, depression, cervical dysplasia, higher risk to develop some cancers, high blood pressure. Low PABA: Hyperthyroid, increased estrogen breakdown by the liver, reduced production of folic acid by intestinal bacteria, reduced utilization of pantothenic acid. May be helpful for: Low estrogen-related infertility, vitiligo (depigmentation of some areas of the skin), scleroderma, dermatomyositis.
High Folic Acid: Kidney damage, abdominal bloating / distention, loss of appetite, nausea, increased cholesterol LDL / HDL ratio, increased zinc and potassium requirements, may mask pernicious anemia from Vit B12 deficiency, higher risk to develop some cancers with high folic acid and Vit B12 supplementation, asthma / respiratory tract infections, worsens some types of childhood leukemia, increased risk of oral cleft malformations. High PABA: Hypothyroid, liver disease, jaundice, nausea, vomiting, increased Vitamin C requirements, increased Vitamin B6 requirements, decreased estrogen breakdown by the liver, decreased effectiveness of some antibiotics, breathing problems, skin reactions.



Folic Acid Sources: PABA Sources:
2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for Adults, Children, Pregnancy and Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
Vitamin B8 - Inositol Vitamin B11 - Choline
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
3-8 years

9-13 years males
14+ years males

9-13 years females
14-18 years females
19+ years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
125mg AI
150mg AI
200mg AI
250mg AI

375mg AI
550mg AI

375mg AI
400mg AI
425mg AI

450mg AI
550mg AI

1,000mg - 3,500mg
250mg - 18,000mg +
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
3-8 years

9-13 years males
14+ years males

9-13 years females
14-18 years females
19+ years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
125mg AI
150mg AI
200mg AI
250mg AI

375mg AI
550mg AI

375mg AI
400mg AI
425mg AI

450mg AI
550mg AI

1,000mg - 3,500mg
250mg - 3,500mg +

Best time to take Inositol: Morning - afternoon; with food. Best time to take Choline: Morning - afternoon; with food.
Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Inositol Synergists: Choline Synergists:
Inositol Antagonists / Inhibitors: Choline Antagonists / Inhibitors:
   * Dose-dependent - They are co-factors at normal levels, and antagonists at higher levels.
High/Low Levels / Deficiency / Toxicity - Symptoms and Risk Factors:
Low Inositol: Oxidative cell damage, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, low bile production, low blood pressure, low total and low HDL cholesterol, mental disorders, peripheral neuropathy, panic-anxiety attacks, agoraphobia, bulimia, unipolar and bipolar depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (up to 18g daily), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), insulin resistance. Low Choline: Low blood pressure, Oxidative cell damage, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, low bile production, low total and low HDL cholesterol, mental disorders, gallstones, poor memory / reduced learning capacity, kidney stones.
High Inositol: Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, high blood pressure, liver disease, kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, increased magnesium requirements, may increase potassium requirements, acne-like skin rash. High Choline: Vomiting, nausea, dizziness, high blood pressure, liver disease, kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, increased magnesium requirements, may increase potassium requirements, acne-like skin rash.



Inositol Sources: Choline Sources:
Typical Food Sources for all B-Vitamins:

Brewer's yeast, unrefined whole grains, liver, all meats, eggs, green leafy vegetables, beans, nuts, seeds.



The information is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for self-treatment
General recommendations for nutritional supplementation: To avoid stomach problems and improve tolerance, supplements should be taken earlier, or in the middle of a larger meal. When taken on an empty stomach or after a meal, there is a greater risk of some tablets causing irritation, or eventually erosion of the esophageal sphincter, resulting in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). It is also advisable not to lie down right after taking pills. When taking a large daily amount of a single nutrient, it is better to split it up into smaller doses to not interfere with the absorption of other nutrients in food, or nutrients supplemented at lower amounts.
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