Vitamins and Trace Minerals

DRI / RDA for Nickel and Cobalt + Vit C - E - B12 - B15

2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for Adults, Children, Pregnancy and Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
Nickel Cobalt
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years males
19+ years males

11-18 years females
19+ years females
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
100 mcg - 300 mcg



400 mcg - 600 mcg
500 mcg - 700 mcg

300 mcg - 500 mcg
400 mcg - 600 mcg

200 mcg - 1,000 mcg
500 mcg - 50,000 mcg + 
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years males
19+ years males

11-18 years females
19+ years females
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
.006 mcg (AI)



10 mcg - 20 mcg
10 mcg - 20 mcg

10 mcg - 20 mcg
10 mcg - 20 mcg

250 mcg (in medicines)
50 mcg - 1,000 mcg
Estimated daily intake of Nickel from food and waterworldwide is 70 mcg - 170 mcg / day.
Estimated daily intake of Cobalt from food and waterworldwide is 5 mcg - 40 mcg / day.

Best time to take Nickel: Not relevant as there are no supplements available. Best time to take Cobalt: Not relevant as there are no supplements available.
Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Nickel Synergists: Iron, tin, phosphorus, Vitamin C, bismuth, cobalt*, germanium. Cobalt Synergists: Manganese, sodium, Vitamin B12, nickel*, iodine (low to normal amounts)
Nickel Antagonists / Inhibitors: Manganese, zinc, calcium, copper, cobalt*, sodium, Vitamin E, phytic acid. Cobalt Antagonists / Inhibitors: Potassium, iron, magnesium, chromium, nickel*, phosphorus, Vitamin C, protein.
   * Dose-dependent - They are co-factors at normal levels, and antagonists at higher levels.
High/Low Levels / Deficiency / Toxicity - Symptoms and Risk Factors:
Low Nickel: Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), low blood pressure, depression, liver disease, anemia, low stomach acid, sinus congestion, fatigue, low adrenals. Low Cobalt: May lead to pernicious anemia, severe fatigue, shortness of breath, low thyroid.
High Nickel: Angina, skin rash, hypoglycemia, decreased estrogen, shortness of breath, asthma, nausea, lowered pulse, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, stomach irritation, increased protein in urine, increased red blood cells, heart failure (from 50,000 - 100,000 x daily intake). High Cobalt: Angina, panic-anxiety attacks, shortness of breath, asthma, cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, polycythemia, (hypo)thyroid problems, neurological problems, overproduction of red blood cells, skinrash, infertility, dermatitis.



Nickel Sources: Unrefined whole grains, oats, nuts, oysters, soybeans, buckwheat seed, peas, beans, lentils, herring, tea. Cobalt Sources: Buckwheat, dairy, nuts, figs, green leafy vegetables, cabbage, meats, shellfish, sea vegetables.
2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for Adults, Children, Pregnancy and Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
Vitamin C / Ascorbic Acid Vitamin E
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years  males
19+ years  males

11-18 years females
19-50 years females
50+ years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
40mg AI
50mg AI
15 - 50mg

65 - 75mg
90mg

55 - 65mg
75mg
75mg

80 - 85mg
115 - 120mg

400mg - 2,000mg
250mg - 50g +
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years  males
19+ years  males

11-18 years females
19-50 years females
50+ years females

pregnant
lactating
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
4mg AI
5mg AI
6 - 10mg

11 - 15mg
15mg

11 - 15mg
15mg
15mg

15mg
19mg

200mg - 1,000mg 
100mg - 2,000mg +

Best time to take Vitamin C: Morning - eveningin divided doses, preferably with the 3 main meals. Best time to take Vitamin E: Anytime duringthe day; preferably with some (fatty) food.
Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Vitamin C Synergists: Vitamin E Synergists:
Vitamin C Antagonists / Inhibitors: Vitamin E Antagonists / Inhibitors:
   * Dose-dependent - They are co-factors at normal levels, and antagonists at higher levels.
High/Low Levels / Deficiency / Toxicity - Symptoms and Risk Factors:
Low Vitamin C: Scurvy, slow wound healing, anemia, easy bruising, shortness of breath, fatigue, nosebleeds, frequent infections, gastrointestinal problems, depression, chronic gingivitis, increased risk for various cancers, impaired formation and maintenance of collagen, impaired multiple hormonal functions, dermatitis, arthritis, reduced insulin production, some types ofmale infertility, vascular degeneration, gallstones. Low Vitamin E: Increased oxidation of free radicals, increased risk for various cancers, cardiovascular disease, hemolytic anemia, angina (left-sided), leg cramps, increased lipid peroxidation, dry skin, irritability, reproductive abnormalities, miscarriage, PMS, fibrocystic (breast) disease, gallstones, cataracts, bruising, dermatitis.
High Vitamin C: Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, high stomach acid, increased urination, insomnia, irritability, jointpains, osteoporosis, headaches, hypoglycemia, weakness, reduced estrogen, PMS, may increase infections by causing copper deficiency, reduce destrogen, reduced progesterone, reduced prolactin. High Vitamin E: Altered immunity, altered blood clotting, fatigue, reduced thyroid functions, increased Vitamin C, Vitamin A, or calcium requirements, cardiovascularcar diovascular disease / stroke, muscle weakness, headaches, raised or lowered blood pressure, nausea.



Vitamin C Sources: Citrus fruit, green peppers, sweet and hot peppers, potatoes, rose hips, currants and other berries, kale, tomatoes, broccoli, cabbage, spinach, watercress. Vitamin E Sources: Wheat germ, seeds, nuts, sweet potato, whole unrefined grains, vegetable oils, olives, corn, apricot oil, margarine, green leafy vegetables.
2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for Adults, Children, Pregnancy and Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
Vitamin B12 (Hydroxocobalamin)
Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin)
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
Vitamin B12 (Adenosylcobalamin)
Vitamin B15 - Pangamic Acid - (No USRDA - Suggested)
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years males
19+ years males

11-18 years females
19+ years females
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):
0.4 mcg AI
0.5 mcg AI
0.7 - 2.0 mcg

2.4 mcg
2.4 mcg

2.6 mcg
2.8 mcg

N/A
100 mcg - 10,000 mcg
AGE
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years males
19+ years males

11-18 years females
19+ years females
-------------------
UL
Therapeutic Range
DRI (RDA):




10 - 25mg
25mg+

10 - 25mg
25mg+

N/A
50mg - 500mg+
Note that Methylcobalamin and Adenosylcobalamin are rapidly converted to Hydroxocobalamin in a presense of UV light.
* May be substituted with DMG (Dimethylglycine) to increase pangamic acid production in the body.

Best time to take Vitamin B12: Morning - afternoon, with or without food for oral intake. Earlier in the dayfor B12 injections. Best time to take Vitamin B15: Anytimeduring the day, preferably with food.
Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Vitamin B12 Synergists: Vitamin B15 Synergists:
Vitamin B12 Antagonists / Inhibitors: Vitamin B15 Antagonists / Inhibitors:
   * Dose-dependent - They are co-factors at normal levels, and antagonists at higher levels.
High/Low Levels / Deficiency / Toxicity - Symptoms and Risk Factors:
Low Vitamin B12: Pernicious anemia (numbness and tingling inhands and feet / nerve damage), shortness ofbreath, severe fatigue, birth defects, dementia, confusion, poor memory, depression, reduced WBCs and platelet formation, loss of appetite, weight loss, sore tongue, headaches, nausea. Low Vitamin B15: Angina (right-sided), coronary artery spasms(right-sided), some types of panic-anxiety disorder, headaches, Vitamin B12 overdose (from Vit B12 injection), some types of high blood pressure, shortness of breath, asthma, increased lactic acid, drug addiction, learning difficulties.
High Vitamin B12: Can cause low folate-related anemia and "pins andneedles" symptoms in fingers and toes after long-termintake without additional folic acid supplementation.

Insomnia, skin rash, increased Vit B15 requirements, optic nerve atrophy(in someone with Leber's disease), some types of leukemia, liver and kidney diseases, mayworsen symptoms of mitral valve prolapse, hyperthyroid, numbness / tingling in right arm or face, hypokalemia, anxieties, panic-anxiety attacks, heart palpitations, may increase / stimulate tumor / cancer cell division.

Methylcobalamin or Adenosylcobalamin are the preferred forms of Vitamin B12 if cyanocobalamin is not tolerated. However, althoughrelatively rare, side effects are possible with all forms.
High Vitamin B15: Pernicious anemia (long-term, very high intake), severe fatigue, depression, headaches, skin rash, shortness of breath, nausea, increased Vitamin B12 requirements.



Vitamin B12 Sources: Meat, dairy, eggs, seafood. There is no vegetarian source of Vitamin B12, but it has been obtained from insect or feces-contaminated vegetarian products. Vitamin B15 Sources: Brewer's yeast, whole grains, organ meats, brown rice, pumpkin and sunflower seeds.


The information is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for self-treatment
General recommendations for nutritional supplementation: To avoid stomach problems and improve tolerance, supplements should be taken earlier, or in the middle of a larger meal. When taken on an empty stomach or after a meal, there is a greater risk of some tablets causing irritation, or eventually erosion of the esophageal sphincter, resulting in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). It is also advisable not to lie down right after taking pills. When taking a large daily amount of a single nutrient, it is better to split it up into smaller doses to not interfere with the absorption of other nutrients in food, or nutrients supplemented at lower amounts.